Neuromuscular diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases. The brain controls the movements of skeletal (voluntary) muscles via specialized nerves. The combination of the nervous system and muscles, working together to permit movement, is known as the neuromuscular system. If you want to move part of your body, a message is sent to particular neurons (nerve cells), called upper motor neurons. Upper motor neurons have long tails (axons) that go into and through the brain, and into the spinal cord, where they connect with lower motor neurons. At the spinal cord, the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord send their axons via nerves in the arms and legs directly to the muscle they control.
Neuromuscular disorders include a wide-range of diseases affecting the peripheral nervous system, which consists of all the motor and sensory nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. Some of the symptoms of the neuromuscular disorders are muscular weakness, muscular cramp, muscle wastage, muscle pain, swallowing difficulty, breathing difficulty, muscle stiffness. Symptoms of the problem vary from mild to moderate to life threatening. Some of the known causes of the neuromuscular disorders are autoimmune disorder, hormonal disorder, metabolic disorder, certain drugs or poisons, viral infection.